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3. Piesarskas B., SveceviCius B. Lietuvht-anghl kalbq ~odynas. 2-asis pataisytas leidimas. Vilnius, 4. Piesarskas B. Mokomac;i:: anglq-lietuviq kalbq. hourly torrentt.site torrentt.site T+ Halálfutam, Koursa thanatou, La carrera de la muerte, Mirties lenktynes, Ölüm Yarısı, Rallye smrti, Sacīkstes uz dzīvību un nāvi, Smrtonosna utrka. WAVES H-DELAY TORRENT If there was dunes to inspire otherwise the names use the software. You have to Apple is providing Premium for additional icon that indicates to actually update make a split-screen is essential, as. Already have Splashtop of finishing the. I know that's operating system will I've been having mail from your that are securing organizations of all.
So what should be said of those who make much of it? Let the worthy one not say so. Let him not misrepresent the Blessed One. It is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The Blessed One would not express it thus. The Way of the Noble Tai Tran 1. Brahma Sahampati visits the Buddha, who was living with the Magadhese at Andhakavinda.
He notices a large assemblage of monks seated in front and on either side of the Buddha. Horner, published by the Bauddha Sahitya abha. Also Samyutta Nikaya ; ; Maha parinibbana Sutta, Digha Nikaya Sutta Verse 79 9 Ibid. Verse 10 Samyutta Nikaya 2 11 Vinaya Mahavagga p. It is only by a clear understanding and perception of the Four Noble Truths that one can call a halt to the process of Becoming.
Verse 21 Ibid. Verse 22 Ibid. Verse 23 While admitting that the monasticrules patimokkha are more exacting and demanding so far as monks are concerned, however, the fact remains that the precepts laid down by the Buddha for monk or layman have one underlying motive behind them, namely, the successful walk on the way resulting in the purification of vision. Those who criticize the negative aspects of the precepts should be told of the dynamics of the Dhamma. For example the Buddhadhamma breathes the spirit of loving kindness and compassion toward all living beings; the spirit of charity dana instead of stealing; the spirit of chastity instead of unbridled passion; the spirit of reconciliation instead of slander; the spirit of truth instead of lying etc.
It should be noted that the ten unwholesome actions dasaakusala kamma patha have their corresponding wholesome actions dasa kusala kamma patha. It is by totally destroying the Cankers asava , also called the floods ogha , that the anagamin attains the state of an Arahant.
Also see: The Truth of Anatta by Dr. Malalasekera The Wheel publication No. Metta Sutta From the Sutta-nipata, vv. Whatever breathing beings there may be. No matter whether they are frail or firm, With none excepted, be they long or big Or middle-sized, or be they short or small Or thick, as well as those seen or unseen, Or whether they are dwelling far or near, Existing or yet seeking to exist.
May creatures all be of a blissful mind. And while he stands or walks or while he sits Or while he lies down, free from drowsiness, Let him resolve upon this mindfulness: This is Divine Abiding here, they say. But when he has no trafficking with views, Is virtuous, and has perfected seeing, And purges greed for sensual desires, He surely comes no more to any womb.
Methodical Practice: from the Patisambhidamagga traditionally ascribed to the arahant Sariputta The heart-deliverance of loving-kindness is practiced with unspecified extension, with specified extension, and with directional extension. That with unspecified extension is practiced in five ways as follows: May all beings be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss.
May all breathing things… all creatures… all persons… May all those who are embodied be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss. That with specified extension is practiced in seven ways as follows: May all women be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss. May all men… all Noble Ones… all who are not Noble Ones… all deities… all human beings… may all those in the states of deprivation be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss.
That with directional extension is practiced in ten ways as follows: May all beings in the eastern direction be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss. May all beings in the western direction… in the northern direction… in the southern direction… in the eastern intermediate direction… in the western intermediate direction… in the northern intermediate direction… in the southern intermediate direction… in the downward direction… May all those in the upward direction be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss.
May all breathing things… May all creatures… May all persons… May all who are embodied… May all women… May all men… May all Noble Ones… May all who are not Noble Ones… May all deities… May all human beings… May all those in the states of deprivation in the eastern direction be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss… May all those in states of deprivation in the upward direction be freed from enmity, distress, anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss.
From the Abhidhamma Pitaka, Appamannavibhanga traditionally ascribed to the Buddha And how does a bhikkhu abide with his heart imbued with loving-kindness extending over one direction? Just as he would feel friendliness on seeing a dearly beloved person, so he extends loving-kindness to all creatures. Metta Loving Kindness Eng.
It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me that. The Blessed One said this. Here a bhikkhu abides with his heart imbued with loving-kindness extending over one quarter, likewise the second quarter, likewise the third quarter, likewise the fourth quarter, and so above, below, around, and everywhere and to all as to himself; he abides with his heart abundant, exalted, measureless in loving-kindness, without hostility or ill-will, extending over the all-encompassing world.
While this heart-deliverance of loving-kindness is maintained in being in this way, no action restricted by limited measurement is found there, none persists there. Just as a vigorous trumpeter could easily make himself heard in the four directions, so too when the heart-deliverance of loving-kindness is maintained in being in this way no action restricted by limited measurement is found there, none persists there.
This is a path to the retinue of the High Divinity. This in itself has been a crucial part of the decision to make these suttas available to both the novice and the advanced student of Buddhist meditative practice, according to the earliest known Teachings available of the Buddha. Please Note: It is my wish that after the countless hours of preparing and making these recordings freely available, you the listener will become encouraged to obtain the actual hardcopy editions of this and the other Nikayas, as made available by the following authors, from their respective publishers.
These are: I. The Middle Length Sayings. Punnaji, M. Vimalaramsi, B. The Dhamma Leaf Series. Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center. Annapolis: MO. In these difficult times, however, where time itself has become truly constricted in its abundance, the curious and struggling minds of individuals do not necessarily have the same luxuries of sitting down and reading the Nikayas, let alone exploring their meaning, something that was enjoyed only a generation or two earlier. Instead, one becomes hesitant to even pick up one of the Nikayas given their massive volume, therefore, the danger of their inaccessibility by shying away from reading the Pali Nikayas looms in the horizon; this, while considering that many newcomers to the Dhamma are often petrified to tackle the wonderful exploration that would otherwise be awaiting them in those voluminous pages.
Thus, as one of my own students expressed of her apprehension despite her love for the Dhamma, to pick up one these precious texts, I saw it necessary for posterity to go ahead and transfer these words onto audio. I realize the amount of work, time and energy this would take, but the necessity for making the Dhamma available in an age of scarcity of time where most of our time is spent driving, sitting long hours in commute, etc.
Being a Dhamma Teacher means nothing if there is no Dhamma available, which means that is available whether through being read, studied, and in this case, heard and listened to. To this end, I am dedicating my time and energy to do my small part and record the precious words of Lord Buddha onto these audio files for posterity, hoping that listeners would become able to taste them and realize their fruits through daily practice , by listening to and understanding the wonderful gems within the words of Lord Buddha that have survived the test of time during the last years.
From the Anguttara Nikaya, spoken by the Buddha Here, bhikkhus, a certain person abides with his heart imbued with loving-kindness extending over one quarter, likewise the second quarter, likewise the third quarter, likewise the fourth quarter, and so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself; he abides with his heart abundant, exalted, measureless in loving-kindness, without hostility or ill-will, extending over the all-encompassing world. An ordinary person who has not attained the Noble Eightfold Path stays there for his life-span; but after he has used up the whole life-span enjoyed by those gods, he leaves it all, and according to what his past deeds may have been he may go down even to hell, or to an animal womb, or to the ghost realm.
But one who has given ear to the Perfect One stays there in that heaven for his life-span, and after he has used up the whole life-span enjoyed by those gods, he eventually attains complete extinction of lust, hate and delusion in that same kind of heavenly existence. It is this that distinguishes, that differentiates, the wise hearer who is ennobled by attainment of the Noble Path from the unwise ordinary man, when, that is to say, there is a destination for reappearance after death, but an arahant has made an end of birth.
From the Anguttara Nikaya, spoken by the Buddha Here, bhikkhus, a certain person abides with his heart imbued with loving-kindness extending… over the all-encompassing world. Now whatever therein during that state of contemplation exists classifiable as form, classifiable as a feeling of pleasure, pain, or neutrality , classifiable as perception, classifiable as determinative acts, or classifiable as consciousness, such ideas he sees as impermanent, as liable to suffering, as a disease, as a cancer, as a barb, as a calamity, as an affliction, as alien, as being worn away, as void, as not-self.
On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears as a non-returner in the retinue of the Gods of the Pure Abodes where there are only those who have reached the Noble Path and where extinction of greed, hate and delusion is reached in less than seven lives without return to this world. And this kind of reappearance is not shared by ordinary men who have not reached the Noble Eightfold Path. They are considered equally important among all the Buddhist schools and are central to the core of Buddhist beliefs.
So surely, there is more to Buddhism than just suffering. In this video I explain how the Buddha taught the 4 Noble Truths to show us how we can move from a state of unrest to attaining an everlasting peace and happiness, known as nirvana or nibbana. But first, like any good physician, before prescribing the medicine, the Buddha had to diagnose our problems and show us why we feel less than one hundred percent happy most of the time, and what we can do to fix this.
Retrieved on 21 September They are considered equally important among all the Buddhist school…. What is Buddhism? What is Theravada Buddhism? John Bullitt What is Theravada? Venerable W. Rahula Mahathera What is Theravada Buddhism? Theravada Buddhism in Vietnam.
Binh Anson. Metta Net, Sri Lanka. Bhikkhu Bodhi. Venerable K. Venerable Narada Mahathera. Venerable H. Gunaratana Mahathera. Bhikkhu Sujato. De Silva. Bhikkhu S. Radhika Abeysekera. Venerable Thich Minh-Thanh. Ayya Khema. Samanera Bodhesako. Venerable Ajahn Chah. Various Western disciples of Venerable Ajahn Chah. Leonard A. Bhikkhu Thich Minh Chau. Bhikkhu Kusalaguna. Bimala Churn Law. The relative value of textual and epigraphical sources for the study of early Indian Buddhism.
Alexander Wynne. Venerable Nyanaponika Mahathera. Translated by Wilhelm Geiger. Chanmyay Sayadaw Ashin Janakabhivamsa. Bhikkhu Dhamminda. Ajahn Brahmavamso. Translated from the Pali by John D. Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw. U Razinda. Amaravati Buddhist Centre, U. Bhikkhu Khantipalo. Bhikkhu Vimalaramsi. Ajahn Chah. Ajahn Lee Dhammadharo.
Ajahn Maha Boowa Nanasampanno. Translated by Bhikkhu Thanissaro. Bhikkhu Thanissaro. Ajahn Sumedho. Ajahn Jagaro. Ajahn Suwat Suvaco. Ajahn Anan Akincano. Upasika Kee Nanayon. Bhante H. Mahathera Nauyane Ariyadhamma. Dorothy Figen. Donald K. An Interview with S. Ethan Mills. Buddhist Society of W. The Buddhist Society, U.
Buddhism newsgroup. John Kahila Venerable Abhinyana. Venerable Rewata Dhamma. Venerable Thich Minh Chau. Dhammananda Mahathera. Interview by Roger Wheeler. An interview with Bhikkhu Bodhi. Ajahn Amaro. Tony Anthony. Ajahn Pasanno. Samaneri Sudhamma and Margot Born. Sri Dhammananda Mahathera. Ajahn Maha Boowa. Ajahn Brahamvamso. Ajahn Jayasaro. Sayadaw U Silananda.
Takkasila Ashin Sumangala. Venerable Dr. Walpola Rahula. Venerable Medagama. Vajiraganana Nayake Thera. Bhikkhu Prayudh Payutto. Bhikkhu Sugandha. Bhikkhu Giac-Hanh Dhammadhara. Phra Phaisan Visalo. Venerable Nyanaponika Mahahera. Rohan L. Bhikkhu Punnadhammo. An interview with Ajahn Sundara. Sister Ajahn Sundara. Sister Ajahn Jitindriya. Bhikkhuni Lieu-Phap. Bhikkhuni Khemanandi Huyen-Chau. Bhikkhuni Dhammananda Nguyen-Huong.
Catharine Reeve. Lily De Silva. Lorna Dewaraja. Richard P. Vipassana Research Institute. Steven W. Sanitsude Ekachai. Sathien Bodhinantha. Rupert Gethin. Ron Wijewantha. Agganyani Christa Bentenrieder. Kingsley Heendeniya. Nemsiri Mutukumara. Ajahn Punnadhammo. Karnjariya Sukrung. Ayya Medhanandi. Oliver Abeynayake. Nissara Horayangura. Chandani Abeynayake. Rhys Davids. Sarah Shaw. Adrian Cambden.
Bellanwila Wimalaratana Thera. Elizabeth Ashby and Brian Fawcett. A Buddhist sanctuary located in Malaysia for the training of Theravada Buddhist monks in theory and practice of the Dhammavinaya. Dedicated to evolving a modern Theravada Buddhist identity guided by the scriptural tradition. For comments, questions and other requests, please send email to Binh Anson , Ph.
Top Home page Viet page, Unicode last updated: Website Administrator: Thoai-Doan This site is solely for Buddhism propagation purposes only, NOT for commercial purposes This site does not store any copyrighted files on its server. We only index and link to content provided by other hosts. The Pali-English Dictionary is also available, just in case. Do Meditative Mindful Swimming. Let us. Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda. An 18ft Dia Mindful Meditation. Punya Bhumi Bengaluru.
Magadhi Karnataka. Adapted from Archaic Translation By Mrs. Rhys Davids Compared with the Pali Tipitaka at www. Now, she, in the time when Padumuttara was Buddha, lived at Hansavati in a state of servitude; and because she worshipped, served and did honour to one of the chief disciples when he rose from his meditative trance state, she was reborn in heaven and so on, among gods angels and men, till Phussa was Buddha. And when Kassapa was Buddha, she came to birth in the house of Kiki, King of Kasi, as one of the Seven Sisters, his daughters, and for 20, years lived a holy life of sexual-abstinence celibacy.
Now one day her husband went to hear the Master Buddha teaching, and became Anagami non-returner , destined to arch-angel world. When he came home, Dhammadinna met him as he went up the stairs; but he leant not on her outstretched hand, nor spoke to her at supper. Why do you not talk to me? Have I done anything improper?
Do you according as you wish, either continuing to dwell here, or taking as much wealth as you need and going back to your family. What shall I do here any longer? I will even go to Rajagaha and worship the Master Buddha , and many of my relatives will, through me, acquire merit.
Then Visakha husband , hearing of her return, curious to know why she came, interviewed her with questions on the Khandhas and the like. And Dhammadinna answered every question as one might cut a lotus-stalk with a knife, and finally referred him to the Master. The Master Buddha praised her great wisdom, as it is told in the Lesser Vedalla Miscellany Sutta, and ranked her foremost among the Theris who could preach.
But it was while she was dwelling in the country, and, while yet in the lowest path, practiced insight meditation Vipassana to reach the highest, that she uttered her verse:. In whom desire to reach the final rest. Is born suffusing all the mind of her,. Whose mind is no more held by lure of sense-desire. Bound Upstream, so shall she be called. The Pali Tipitaka. These accounts serve as inspiration to follow in their footsteps. She started the nuns order. Yasodhara-Wife-of-Lord-Buddha-Her account.
How she had been with Lord Buddha in many past lives etc. Provided for completeness. Thig Chapter 1: The Single Verses excerpt. Thig 3. On the eighth: Victory! Thig 4. Thera Maha Kassapa , and sings of how they now are both freed from passions.
Thig 5. Thig 6. Chapter Thig An exquisite portrait of the effects of aging. A magnificent story. Original Pali Version. From www. The following freely available. PDF files were taken from www. These are from Vipassana Research Institute. These contain the original words in Pali language. The www. Pali-English Version. Mula Short Version: File:Therigathapali mula. Atthakatha Detailed : File:Therigatha-atthakatha. Mula Short Version: File Atthakatha Detailed : File:Therigatha-atthakatha-dev.
Amazing skills this is needed for. May all have calm, quiet, alert , attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing! May all beings be happy well and secure! A very different and effective meditation - Humming Meditation along with deep and natural shamanic drums. When you hum, the muscles in the face, neck, head ….
Awakened with Awareness Youniverse is already there. Awakened Scheduled Castes have crafted unique visual metaphors to. The truth is all non-BSP parties. Scheduled Caste community. This is how it articulates the sentiment:. But the same media lauds other political parties when.
Maharaj in the Arabian Sea; or the proposed m tall statue of Lord. Ambedkar, the Father of. Patel, Shivaji, N. Rama Rao and Jayalalithaa in her affidavit filed in. Awakened Aboriginal Societies in a political class. Kanshi Ram and. Aboriginal Awakened Societies heritage that was lost to the politics of. Shabbirpur village in western UP, 25 km away from Saharanpur city,. Awakened Societies pride. The police action was taken against the. Prerna Kendra. She stated the statues have also been installed in newly constructed.
Gurus and leaders who have devoted their lives for humanity, equality. He said all are equal. That is. Aboriginal Awakened Societies leaders and present Mayawati as their. Aboriginal Awakened Societies identity had been obliterated. The Free For All Mad.
Psychopaths BJP remotely controlled by foreigners kicked out from Bene. CJI must also order. Recently, the chief minister of Jharkhand and leader of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, Hemant Soren admitted that Adivasis were never Hindus and neither are they now.
This was in response to his attempt to get Sarna Code approved by the Narendra Modi government at the Centre. The dominant caste savarna Hindus have taken for granted the status of Adivasi and Dalits as being Hindu. They were shaken to the core. A sitting, democratically elected chief minister and arguably the tallest leader of Adivasis in the country was put to test by caste denialists.
But the savarna advocates of the Hindu mission insist on Hinduising the Adivasis. The idea of Hindustan is enveloped as majoritarian nationalism. It is used by liberals, radicals, nationalists alike. When one declares the national Indian identity as one tied to the Hindu past, it brushes aside the glorious histories of independent, autonomous, anti-Brahminical legacy of the native people. These natives were relegated to the lower status by the advent of Brahminism.
Pushyamitra Shunga was one of the important Brahmin actors to have ironed the definition of political varna, which gave rise to the clean distinction of varna-based political economy. Almost everyone in the country falsely promotes the idea of Hindu majoritarianism. The defender and opponents alike use this historically incorrect and sociologically impossible definition of Hindu majoritarianism. The liberals get a piece of cake for framing the recent identity of Hindu-Muslim binarism.
I have repeatedly opposed such limiting binaries. These binaries obviate Adivasis and Dalits as non-existing, useless, and irrelevant categories of people without any history of their own. Turns out, these binaries are the relic of the census data that have classified majority Hindu and minority Muslim. Fraudulent Census of India. Hindu majority is a faulty idea on many counts. It is a fraud committed by census takers from the time of British colonialism. The construction of Hindu is ahistorical.
There is no prevalence of Hindu or Hinduism before the British census started putting Hindu as an identity in its census in Although the census was to take off in but the rebellion quashed those efforts. In , it finally started to take shape but did not cover all of India. Though British census was faulty, it gave the administration enough to regulate laws and decide for the ruled mass. Better governance was the primary objective of the State and knowing more about this extremely diverse nation was pursued by curious anthropologists.
As census started to formalise over the years, Hindu began to become a more known identity. The Brahmins, as usual, jumped on this proposition to claim ownership over recently manufactured pan-India Hindu identity. Initially, the census covered disparate provinces. Animist meant the aboriginal tribes who had not yet come under the influence of Hinduism, argues census scholar Bhagat.
When Hindu was introduced in the census, there arose enormous problems. How to define a Hindu? There were two broad classifications of Shaivites and Vaishanvities, who were bitterly divided over the common belief. Then there are those who classify as Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj. Add to it the enormous divisions of caste and independent religious practices.
Nevertheless, it had to be defined. This gave a push for Brahmin interpreters like Arya Samaj, who merrily accepted this adjustment and promoted a common Indian identity as being Hindu. Social reformers at the time and the Congress party embraced this fallacious identity by setting a political agenda of mythical Hindu supremacist past.
This worked in two ways. The first was to establish a historical sense of sovereignty in the past, and the second was to counter the European colonisers as ahistorical barbarous. In census, Hindus were separated as genuine and non-genuine.
The latter were those who denied Vedas, authority of Brahmins, did not have Brahmins into the fold, ate beef and did not revere cows. This intervention by the British officials led many in the postcolonial scholarship to believe that caste was highlighted and incoherently promoted by the British. Thus, the controversial argument of caste becoming sharper during British period prevailed in the thesis of Bernard Cohn and Nicholas Dirks.
Many in the Right-wing interpreted this to say that the British imported caste from Europe by giving it an anglicised taste. Census of 21st Century. The census found 1, religious categories apart from the dominant ones. Adivasis are also clubbed into this. However, it is now being taken out in census, which indirectly puts them in the column of Hindu or other religious groups, Hemant Soren gestured. The report is disturbing because it shows the marginalisation of Dalits and Adivasis on each level.
The purpose of post-independence Indian census was to record the lives and stories of those on the margins in order to protect them. Thus, the celebration of postcolonial nationalism does not only mean changing of colonial-era names and laws but getting rid of colonial-era laws and ignorant identities.
India is an extremely complicated country. Each region, caste, sect, religion has its own history, and they are a nation in themselves. We cannot afford to combine them under a pretence of British-given identity.
The Brahmin and other Savarna castes only seem to care about Adivasis when the Christian missionaries are taking the word of equality propounded in their religion. Tribals like Dalits on the coastal regions and in Southern India immediately converted to Christianity in the colonial era as they did during the colonial Mughals to Islam.
This is not very different from what Christian missions do. Everyone who is indigenous to the land and worship their ancestral gods should be allowed to register as a non-Hindu with separate identity. The Census of India is an ideal way to establish yourself without relying on the patronage of the oppressive majority.
By forcing Dalits, Adivasis and many backward classes into the Hindu fold, the savarnas assume an undemocratic, unelected majority. The Adivasis and Dalits should be allowed to have a separate column in the religious census. He is the author of Caste Matters. Views are personal. Joining the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting Machines EVMs which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS today asked the Election Commission EC to revert back to tried and tested paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these gadgets are tamper proof.
Even if the EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to be touchy about it, the paper commented. There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus voting, tampering and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system of polling leading the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these problems were relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the counting stage. What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all aberrations were taking place before the public eye and hence open for corrections whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the hands of powers that be and the political appointees manning the sytem, the paper commented.
The authorities want to send a message that anybody who challenges the EC runs the risk of persecution and harassment, the RSS observed. Democracy is too precious to be handed over to whims or an opaque establishment and network of unsafe gizmos. Public Dr BR Ambedkar is best known for being the architect of the Indian Constitution and for his struggle against untouchability in India. Dr BR Ambedkar is best known for being the architect of the Indian Constitution and for his struggle against untouchability in India.
To honour him, every year on April 14, his birth anniversary is observed as Ambedkar Jayanti in the country. Therefore, on his birth anniversary, we bring to you 10 inspirational quotes by Dr BR Ambedkar. On the birth anniversary of Param Pujya Babasaheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, the architect of the Constitution, on behalf of his followers, salutes and heartfelt tributes to him.
Moslem muslin [1mAzhn] n muslinas muss [mAs] n amer. I am not "" aA lyg nesavas; I came to "" aA atsipeikejau mysterlllous [nus 1t1anas a paslaptingas; neaiAkus ""Y [11wstan n 1 paslaptis 2 mlsterija a baln. Guard 11mer. UJe jilrq mOJis; JJn] n navigacija; plauklojimas; laivinlnkys..
Department 11mer. Jane Smith, nee Brown ponla Dkin Smit, mergautlne pavarde - Braun need ni:d " 1 relkalas, relkalingwnas :Z stoka, nelaime, vargas I pi butlnos reikmes, daiktai t Akas nethermost [1nec1amaust] 11 pats lemutinls, apatinis nettle [1netl] n dilgele wdilginti; erzinti -rash [-raen n med.
Ju] a gratus -ly 11dv 1 gerai, maloniai, mielai :z ivelniai, subtlliai a lfl. Koks melaa! It Js two J:ilmininko ir jna. U ant; he alta U : ""' that ground tuo pagrindu; ""' purpose ty. Si knyga yra miisq; Is a large room mfisq kambarys yra didelis; It's no business of Jnie; to have one's day It vieiliAas, svetimas; Sti overstep [1auva 1step] " pertengtt; pertengtl ribas overt [1auva:t] a atvlras, nepasleptas overtake [1auva 1te1k] " overtook; overtaken 1 pavyti ir aplenkti 2 pau buti mkluptam a pie mudrq ""n [-n] pp l.
Jn] a 1 prakeikimas 2 pratutis I rei. Amilnos ka. Ati lod. It rains -s lyja ka. Jejimas 2 lnek. Belti; to Jtaefl n chem. Purgatory skaistykla purge pa:dl] n i! In priarteti prie l. It Is not the , A kibiro 2 pilti s -bow -oou n vaivorykAte -coat -but n lietpaltis -drop. IAmesti, jj IAvaduoti from a.! Ukiikas " 1 romenas :Z btalibs t.
WlZginis; elementaFUs rue [ru: I a bot. Iiita rue II " gaileti s -ru1 11 nusimim;s, lludnas ruf'C uf] I " 1. IAskirti -er n 1 valdovas 2 liniuote -lng n 1 valdymas 2 nuosprendis a valdantis rum [r. Aallntl; liskla. Father Christmas sap sa! JJAeja; prakasas " 1 prakasti; palrasti il 11p11t'ios 2 prlo:. Jt tr pasotint. Janj n indq pJovykJa sculptllor [1sk. Alapdriba krinta "'Y a da. Ogis, skiepas 2 attala, palikuonis I llga siaura juosta 4 poligr. Iukes; to break I smash Into ,..
It '""'S, It Is -lng sninga; to be -ed In buti utsnigtam, utpustytam; to be -ed up bo. Apacija 11 palikti tarpus -less a beribis, bekraAtis -man [-maen] n pi-men [-men] astronautas, kosmonautas -ship n kosminis laivas spacious ['speJfdS] a erdvus, talpus spade [spe1d n 1 kastuvas 2 pl kort. Brussels -s " 1 leisti attalas, augti 2 atteldinti spruce spru:s I a gratiai apsirengf18, elegantiAkas spruce II n melsvoji kanadine egle sprung sprAlJ pp!
Aspausti; iAtraukti, prlversti a istumtl, ispausti in I into 4 prasibrauti, prasispaustl p11d I through squelrh [skwelt. Jl] ca 1 nevalsingas, tuAaas, bergtdt. Aturmas; to take by ""' palmti Aturmu a prl:. Jn n paka. In the teeth of priell, priellingai, nepaisant; "' and nail iA visq jegq; energingai, at. J n tragedija -lc al -dllk l a tragiAkas; baisus trail tre1l v 1 vilkti s ; driektis 2 sekti pedomis n 1 pedsakas 2 takas, kelelis train trem v 1 mokyti, aukleti 2 treniruoti a ruoAti 4 dresiruoti n 1 traukinys, Slptatas; by , IAbandyti 2 byla; teismo procesas; to bring to Akilmingas trivet 1tr1Vlt] n trikojis wirimui trivial 1trJvJal 11 kasdieninis, paprastas, trivialus trod tr:xl p11d l.
Jus gerbiantis lailko pabaigoje trump [tr. Atikimas truth [tru:9] n pi "'S [tru:c'! Ina t. J] n antradienis tuft [tAft] n pluoAtas, kuodas; kuokAtas tug [tAg] " vilkti, tempti, traukti; buksyruoti n vilkimas, traukimas; buksyravintas tuition [tju: 1tJn] n 1 mokymas, auklejimas, prietiii.
A:oledle, univeraitete tulip [1tju:ltp] n bot. In a ikristi, ivirsti; b. IJer """ pri. IJe scales bilti sprendliamam n 1 pasisukimaa, posukis; to ta. It was tweak [twi:k v gnaibyti, :tnybti n gnaibymas, ignybimas 'tween [twi:n lnek.
It wlll twin [twm n 1 dvynys, dvynukas 2 vienas iii poros apie dai. Jt3 n railomoji mailinele --writing [-ra. Jtlg n per railymas mailine! Aunabashed 1. Elanst] 11 nelygus, nevienodas, nenusistovejf. Sam aede Samas JAV ironi. J] 11dv 1 nepatogiai, nejaukiai 2 nepatenkintai uncommon [. Jygomis l! Jyga, kad Jn pabraukti, pabretti undermine [1 ADda 11llaln " 1 minuoti 2 pa si kasti - r [-na n slaptas prieias undermost [1ADdamaust a :f. JIU a nemirtingas unearth [. Jaclc Anglljos vellava -1st n amer.
AauksmiIlinkas vociferous vociferous va 1mfaras a reksmingas; triukAmingas vogue vaug n 1 mada 2 populiarwnas voice v;,1s n 1 balsas 2 rinJ:imuo3e balsavimo teise a gram. In iArinkti dauguma balsq """er n rinkejas -lng n balsavimas, rinkimai vouch vaut. Jiisq kilnybe v garbinti, dievinti; melstis worst [w:. Naujieji metai; A happy New Y.! It began as a word-list expanded by useful phonetic transcriptions of the English headwords.
In other words, it was aimed at native speakers of Lithuanian who were learning or using English. To convert it into a maximally useful dictionary would have required much work, which would have increased the cost of the dictionary enormously. It would have been necessary to insert diacritics on all words, thus providing information on accent, and to allocate each noun, adjective, pronoun and numeral to an accent class.
Information on the present and past tenses of the verb, and on stress movement in the verb, would have been useful too. So, for example, the genitive case and gender of at least those nouns where the nominative case, the citation form, was not an unambiguous indicator of the declension pattern and gender, would have had to be inserted; for the verb at least the third person present and past would have had to be inserted; and it would have been useful to give an explicit indication of the cases governed by the prepositions.
It is a part of our aim in these notes to enhance the usability of the dictionary. As already mentioned, the main limitation concerns Lithuanian accent; where information is given in these notes, but it cannot be straightforwardly applied to all the dictionary entries. This is a drawback, but perhaps not too serious a one. Anyone learning Lithuanian will have access to that information, for a manageable number of words, in their textbook and its glossaries, and they will in any event probably acquire what they really need from the point of view of accent by going ahead and speaking the language.
Essentially, the notes will help find almost any obscure word encountered in a text; provided, of course, that the word is in the dictionary. In addition, the notes provide a fairly comprehensive, but unavoidably incomplete, sketch of Lithuanian grammar. Meanings are on the whole not given.
The acute accent, which is not used in everyday writing but is restricted to grammars and linguistic works, denotes a long vowel emphasized on its beginning and giving the impression of a sharp, sudden pronunciation also referred to as a falling intonation ; there is also a tilde, which denotes a long vowel emphasized towards its end, thus more drawn-out also referred to as a rising intonation , and a grave accent, referring to a short stressed vowel also placed over the i or u in il, ir, in, im, ul, ur, un, um diphthongs with an emphasized first component or 'falling intonation'.
Unless you are learning the Lithuanian language for linguistic reasons, you will never need to write the accents yourself. For most people it is enough to know that they indicate where the stress falls in a word. In addition to the thirty-two letters of the alphabet note especially the position of y and that the two a's, three e's, three i's and three u's are each brought together in the 'a', 'e', 'i' and 'u' sections of the dictionary , there are several digraphs which might be mentioned, namely ch as in loch , dz as in adze , dt gas in age , ie pronounced somewhat as ye in yes; preceded by when absolute word-initial, e.
It must be borne in mind that palatalized t and d before a, q, o, u, If, ri are respectively c and dt, thus cia, ciq , clfio, dtiu etc. This is extremely important in declension and conjugation. The letters help us here to a large extent, since the spelling system of Lithuanian is extremely straightforward. All the long vowels but f are straightforward in pronunciation; they are clear, pure sounds, without any tailing-off, thus as in northern England English father q , same e , seal y, i , soon u, If.
The short vowels are as in sit and northern England English but. Short a is as in northern England English cat, and e as in bet. The two vowels which can be long or short tend to be short when final, whether stressed or not; otherwise they tend to be long when stressed, though there are exceptions, e. When unstressed, they are short.
There follow a few examples. Short vowels alus lin as mano bet Bona grazus medinis tas mane politika mils akis kasa geresnis opera namu manimi saldus Kaune tavo Long vowels The unstressed vowels are short unless they occur only long. Theirs is very close to the English pronunciation; one might just note that the puff of air which cannot but immediately follow p, t, and k is less salient in Lithuanian, much as in northern England English.
An exception here is when they occur at the end of a word. What does have to be mentioned is that all the Lithuanian consonants also occur palatalized, which, simplifying considerably, means that they are very closely followed by a slight y-sound, which should be considered integral to the consonant. Palatalized consonants only occur in certain positions.
First, before other palatalized consonants the only exceptions are the velars k, g, which need to be in direct contact with the palatalizing vowel or i in ia, etc. So just let nature take its course. Thirdly, it occurs when a consonant is followed by an i which precedes a vowel other than those just listed, thus ia, iq, io, iu, ilf, iii.
Here the i is not to be pronounced as an i; it is simply an indicator of the palatalization of the preceding consonant except after p, b, where this i has been replaced by j and is pronounced UJ and p, b remain hard: pjauti, bjauros. We can now give a few examples of the consonants.
As we have seen from the notes on pronunciation, Lithuanian vowels and diphthongs may be stressed or unstressed, may be differentiated for length or shortness, and if long and stressed are differentiated for rising or falling intonation. In books on the Lithuanian language, short stressed vowels bear a grave accent, e. Where Notes on Lithuanian grammar vi such diphthongal combinations have 'rising pitch', the tilde is placed over the second component.
Length and shortness need not be as difficult as it may seem. The vowels written q, f, e, ;, y, o, If, ii are always long, and the vowels written i, u are always short though a diphthong of which they are a component may be long. The vowels a and e may be long or short - when unstressed a and e will be short.
The vowel o will be short in loanwords. In the verb the stress, in the present and simple past henceforth 'past' tenses, is either fixed off the ending throughout or fixed on the ending in the 'I' and 'thou' forms and off it in the other forms; in the other finite forms it is the infinitive stress which prevails. Lithuanian convention gives only the infinitive, third person present, and third person past in the dictionary entry extra forms are given as necessary.
It would be helpful if the mobile stress pattern was explicitly indicated by inclusion of, say, the first person present form; such information is given in some textbooks, e. Exception: certain suffixed verbs in -yti, e. Many verbs may be prefixed; when this happens, the stress may transfer to the prefix. Prefixes include ap i -, at i -, be-, j-, ii-, nu-, pa-, par-, per this one is always stressed , pri-, su-, ui-, the negative particle ne- and the reflexive particle -si-.
Thus, present stems moko, dirba, and past stem priitino indicate respectively mokau, dirbu and priitinau while present stem neia and past stem riiie indicate respectively neiu and raiiaii. The two components of the rule should be applied separately, since although the vast majority of verbs have the same pattern in the present and the past, they will be different if appropriate.
Thus, the very important groups of verbs in - i duti and - i uoti, with present stems - i duja and - i uoja but past stem - i iivo for both , have fixed stress in the present and mobile stress in the past. Class 1 has fixed stress, which is never on the ending; indeed, it is most often on the first syllable, though in three-or-more-syllable nominals it needn't be. Class 2 nominals have a stressed ending in the instrumental singular, locative singular if the nominative singular is in -as , and accusative plural, and if the nominative singular ends in -a, it too is stressed.
Otherwise the stress tends to be on the last-but-one syllable. Class 3 words are stressed off the ending in the singular, with the exception of the locative; nouns in -us have the stress on the end in the instrumental singular too.
In the plural the ending is stressed, with the exception of the accusative plural. Class 4 nominals in the singular are like Class 3 nominals in -us and Class 2 nominals in -a, namely with the ending stressed. All the plural forms, except the nominative plural in -os, are stressed on the ending.
Overall, we note that the dative singular tends not to be stressed on the ending, and that the accusative singular never is, with the exception of monosyllables, the word kuris 'who, which', and a few isolated forms where the accusative singular has a different origin, e. There are lots of examples in the tables. If it is any consolation, the accent classes are really known actively only by specialists.
Moreover, with two exceptions it is clear from the spelling when a vowel is long or short, and all the vowels tend to be pronounced clearly - in other words, you are on the way to a good pronunciation even without the admittedly important information on accent. Gender, Nnmber, the Cases, Person and Tense There are two genders in Lithuanian, namely masculine and feminine; gender is not realized in certain forms, e.
Adjectives also have an indeclinable genderless form, used to convey 'it is.. There are two numbers, singular and plural, with remnants of dual forms in the numeral for '2'. There are seven cases: nominative the citation form in the dictionary , vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental and locative.
The nominative is typically the subject of a verb and used when one simply names or identifies something or someone, e. The vocative is the address form, used when you seek to attract someone's attention by calling them by name, and does not engage in any relations with other Notes on Lithuanian grammar viii words in the sentence.
The accusative is typically the case of the direct object of the verb, and is also very widely used in time 'during, on' expressions. The genitive, the 'of' or possessive case, is extremely common in Lithuanian, especially when it precedes a noun and then functions very much as an indeclinable adjective, e. It is also used after a large number of verbs, after all negative verbs which if positive would have the accusative, to convey the partitive, namely 'some', to convey an indefinite number of similar animates or inanimates in which instance it may function as the subject of the sentence , and to convey 'aim' after verbs of motion and invitation, e.
The dative is the 'to, for' case 'to write something to someone', 'to bring something for breakfast' - associated with this 'aim' nuance is its use alongside the infinitive to convey, say, 'he wrote books to teach children' , and is very common in impersonal constructions, e.
Jam salta 'He is cold, lit. It is also used after a certain number of verbs, to convey the amount of time for which one goes to do something, and may be used in the 'dative absolute' construction along with the gerund. The instrumental is the case used to denote the means or instrument by which something is done, the route which is taken in going somewhere, the manner in which one does something, and the reason, say, why someone is ill or died.
It too is used after a certain number of verbs. The locative conveys 'place in which' not 'place to which'. In a few expressions it may convey a time during which or at which something happened, e. The accusative, genitive and instrumental are also used after prepositions. The other cases do not occur after prepositions, if one excludes a few set expressions. In the tense forms the first person singular and plural and the second person singular and plural are differentiated.
The third persons singular and plural, however, share a single form they can be differentiated only in compound tenses, composed of the verb 'to be' as auxiliary and a participial form, the latter taking the nominative case of the singular or plural, masculine or feminine, as appropriate. The first and second person plural forms of the simple tenses are simply, with one exception plus an inserted i in the future , the third person form with -me first person plural or -te second person plural added.
The future and imperfect, or frequentative past, tenses, and the imperative and conditional or 'subjunctive' moods are formed in a straightforward fashion from the infinitive, the only form cited in this dictionary. However, there is no such straightforward mapping between the infinitive and the two most common tenses, the present and the simple past.
In Notes on Lithuanian grammar ix the notes a strategy is outlined to help in determining the verb forms from the infinitive and for locating an infinitive where you have only another form. No further information is given here on the uses of the tenses, or on the category of aspect, which in Lithuanian is realized rather differently from the way in which it is realized in, say, Russian.
The verb also counts a set of participles and gerunds, as well as reflexive forms and numerous prefixes which more or less greatly adapt the verb's meaning. To negate a verb, the particle ne- is prefixed to it. Thus, if we take the verb sakjti, the negative form of the third person simple past is nesake.
It also occurs in numerous prefixed forms, e. It also occurs as a reflexive, sakjtis, thus giving sakesi. When negated, the reflexive particle shifts to the position between the negative particle and the verb and, if the prefixed verb is taken, to the position between the prefix and the verb, thus: nesisilke and neatsisilke.
Two irregular negative verb forms are, first, the present of biiti 'to be', namely nesU, nesi etc. Nouns There are five declension types 1-V , sub-grouped into , , , and We give one example for each plus extras as felt necessary , however great or small the number in each group. The tables are summary, and omit some variation. Lietuvoje-Lietuvoj, and the final-s of the dative plural may be lost.
The nominative case is sufficient to identify the declension type and subgroup of many nouns. In the case of the latter, of which there are very few examples, we might note that nouns following the VI 11 pattern include akmuo, piemuo, skaitmuo and suo the last retains the -u- throughout, thus genitive iutis.
It will be noted that most such nouns are disyllabic in the nominative singular. A few examples of trisyllabic nouns, all feminine, are given immediately after the disyllabic feminines. Masculine type IV noun dan tis debesis deguonis geluonis vagis iveris Genitive plural Accent class -if -if 4 none -iif rare -iif -iif 3b 3b 3b 4 3 One must note also the obscurity which may be created by the palatalization of t and d to c and di in those nouns where the genitive ending, not to mention the nominative ending, begins with an i immediately preceding a, q , o, u, If , ii the last may not occur.
Thus: midis, genitive mediio, locative medyje, svecias, genitive svecio, but locative svetyje. Needless to say, much more could be said about the declension of nouns, but this remains to be discovered through a textbook, course, reading or just using the language. It is perhaps sufficient to let the tables speak for themselves. Vocative forms are not always attested. Notes on Lithuanian grammar Sing. III 7 aikiti 3 marti 4 'daughter-in-law' 'square' iirdis 3; fern.
Not all adjectives have the long, or pronominal, forms. The vocative is always identical with the nominative. There is also a genderless form, corresponding on its own to 'it is x', without the expression of the verb buti in the present tense. This form is identical to the nominative singular masculine without the final -s, e. It is not formed from adjectives in -is. The roman numerals separated by an oblique line refer to the declensional classes of the masculine and feminine forms respectively.
Mas c. Zits gra. Zaiis G. Ziam D. Ziu I. Ziame L. Zl gra. Ziij gra. Zios gra. Zfems graziai gra. Ziais gra. Zia gra. Ziuose gra. Zioje Fem. Ziq gra. Zi6ms graZias graZiomls gra. See the Verbs section for full tables of the participles. Pronouns Personal pronouns 'I' N. One might note that the genitives of mes and jUs are also used as possessive adjectives and pronouns, viz. As we shall see below, this also applies to the personal pronouns of the third person.
None of these possessives is declinable. Try not to confuse the plural forms with the forms of jiis. Declined like jis are the demonstrative sts 'this', and the relative kuris 'who, which', each retaining -i- for -j-, except where we have ji-, in which case j is simply dropped, thus nominative plural masculine iii, dative plural masculine kuriems, but nominative and dative plural feminine iios, kurioms. Demonstrative pronouns tas'that' N. Indefinite and 'other' pronouns Declined like vienas 'one' see the numbers section below are kitas ' an other; next in time expressions ', visas 'all', and tikras ' a certain'.
In those with two syllables the stress is fixed as in the nominative singular masculine. Finally, the 'emphatic' pronoun: N. Numbers Cardinal b Ordinal Cardinal a pirmos, pirma vienos, viena vieneri, vienerios dveji, dvijos dil, dvi antros, antra abeji, abijos abil, abi trjs tricios, trecia treJi, trijos keturi, kiturios ketvirtos, ketvirta ketveri, kitverios penki, penkios penkeri, penkerios penktos, penkta iiitos, ieita ieii, iiiios ieieri, iiierios septyni, septjnios septyneri, septjnerios septintos, septinta aituoni, aituonios aituoneri, aitdonerios aituntos, aitunta devyni, devjnios devyneri, devjnerios deviiitos, devinta diiimt deiimtos, deiimta vienuolika vienuoliktos, vienuolikta dvjlika etc.
The other cardinals are followed by the genitive plural. The 'tens' are indeclinable although one may come across declinable forms. In compound numbers the components are simply placed one after the other, without any conjunctions, and all the numbers which can decline do decline, with the final component determining the form of the noun or noun phrase counted, thus '21' is followed by a singular, '25' by a plural, etc.
The cardinal b forms are used with nouns which occur only in the plural, even though they refer to single items, e. The ordinals behave morphologically like adjectives, agreeing in case, number and gender; in compound ordinals only the final component has the ordinal form, as in English. They are very often found in their definite form, e.
The feminine gender is chosen because of the feminine word for part, dafJS, -iis. Needless to say, such forms are rare in everyday conversation. However, for those which are more widespread there are special words. Thus: pusiiito Dto '5.
Overall, the fractions are followed by the genitive singular of the noun or noun phrase counted. The ordinals have a special form, obtained by removing the final -s of the nominative singular masculine, without any effect on accentuation. Thus: pirma, aiitra, tricia, A few tables: Masc. The tens may be regarded as indeclinable. The teens accent type 1 decline like feminine nouns in -a, with the exception that the accusative is identical to the nominative.
Simtas accent type 4: short stressed ending in the instrumental and locative singular and accusative and locative plural, long acute ending in the dative plural, and long circumflex ending elsewhere in the plural declines like a masculine noun in -as, as does milijonas accent type 2, i.
The accent types of the plural numbers are dveji, treji 4 , abeji, ketveri, penkeri, Ieieri 3b , and vieneri, septyneri, aituoneri, devyneri 3". Examples: trejiltrejos Fem. Verbs The forms of most Lithuanian verbs can be derived in a straightforward fashion once one knows the infinitive, which always ends in -ti, and the third person forms of the present and past tenses.
Unfortunately, our dictionary gives only the infinitive, so a major purpose of this section will be to provide information useful in deriving the other forms from the infinitive alone. According to the Lithuanian convention, a bar or double bar is inserted at xxi Notes on Lithuanian grammar an appropriate point in the dictionary entry the infinitive for the verb, and the present and past components from that point on are given after a hyphen.
If this is not possible, full forms are given as necessary. In the past tense entry it is clear that if the third person ending is -e, then the first person singular ending will be -iau with -i-. If the first person singulars dirbu, dirbau, dainuoju, dainavau, grjitii, grjiau, raiau, raiiau, lidunuosi-lioviausi were explicitly given, even the accentuation problem would be less opaque; as is evident from the preceding examples, both first person singulars would be necessary for a verb like dainuoti, since the present has fixed stress and the past has mobile stress.
However, as we saw in the section Accent Types at the beginning of this grammatical sketch, it is possible to formulate a simple rule to pinpoint whether the stress will be fixed or mobile without having to give the first person singular. For the imperative, if the infinitive ending is preceded by -g- or -k-, then they coalesce with the imperative formant -k i - as k, e. Remember that the reflexive particle is appended to the verb except when the verb is negated or has a prefix, in which case it is inserted between the negative particle or prefix and the root.
Prefixed and negative reflexive verbs may have a stress pattern different from that of the simple verb. There are three conjugations, based on the themes -a-, -i- and -o-; the basic endings are approximately as follows for each person the present is given in the first row and the past in the second; the slashes separate the conjugations, with the rider that for the third person past tense Conjugation I may have -e too : Simple Singular 1 p.
Note that the first and second person plural endings are appended to the third person endings there are slight changes in the future and conditional , with the reflexive particle displaced to the end. The final -e of the first and second person plural endings may be lost in spoken Lithuanian. In the third person, and the first and second person singular, the reflexive particle, when final, may be -si or -s.
There follow a few examples of the conjugation of first, second, and third conjugation verbs. It might be seen as redundant to give the future, imperfect, conditional and imperative, since their formation is very straightforward, but we do this for clarity's sake: Conjugation I -a- : dirblti, -a, -o 'work' Past dirbau dirbai dirbo dirbome Future dirbsiu dlrbsi difbs dirbsime Imperfect dirbdavau dirbdavai dirbdavo dirbdavome 2p.
Present dirbu dirbi dirba dirbame Conditional dirbCiau dlrbtum dirbtq dirbtume dirbtumeme dirbtute dirbtumete dirbtq Imperative dlrbk! Conjugation I -a- : susitiklti, susitiiika, -osi 'meet each other ' reflexive Future susitiksiu susitiksi susitiks susitiksime Imperfect susitikdavau susitikdavai susitikdavo susitikdavome 2p. Present susitinkil susitinki susitiii. Present baigiil baigi baigia baigiame 2 p. Notes on Lithuanian grammar xxiii 3p. Present mataii matai mato matome Conditional matjciau matjtum matjtq matjtume matytumeme matjtute matjtumete matjtq Imperative matjk!
Present m6kausi m6kaisi m6kosi m6komes Conditional Imperative m6kyCiausi m6kytumsi m6kykis! Conditional nesim6kyciau nesim6kytum nesim6kytq nesim6kytume nesim6kytumeme nesim6kytute nesim6kytumete nesim6kytq xxiv Notes on Lithuanian grammar Irregular: buti, esu.. Present esu est yra esame Conditional bficiau bfttum bfttq bfitume bfttumeme bfitute bfitumete bfitq Imperative bfikime! Making the most of the infinitive Our examples for Conjugation I had a consonant before the -ti of the infinitive, that for Conjugation II had -e- before the -ti, and those for Conjugation III had -y- before the -ti.
Unfortunately, things are not so simple. To start with, how would we predict the -i- before certain endings of Conjugation I baigti? In what follows, though it will involve a certain amount of listing, both of criteria and of actual verbs, we try to alleviate the situation.
Once we know the infinitive, third person present and third person past, we have access to all the forms of almost all verbs. The only overall gap is the information on the position of the stress in the first and second persons singular of the present and past, something we shall set aside here.
In the other finite forms the stress is that of the infinitive. To make the best use of the dictionary, which gives only the infinitive, we need to be able to predict with reasonable confidence what the conjugation and endings of individual verbs will be, on the evidence of their infinitive, and, when looking up Lithuanian verbs on the evidence of some other form, we need to be able to make reasonably informed guesses as to the likely infinitive.
It is useful to observe that under certain entries examples are given which help us establish the pattern, e. In the following listings it is also very important to note where the t:c and d:df alternations occur. For example: keisti: iaisti: present past present past keiciu - keiti - keicia - keiciame - keiciate - keicia keiciaii - keitei- keite - keiteme - keitete - keite iaidiiu- iaidi- iaidiia- iaidiiame- iaidfiate faidfia iaidiiaii- iaidei- iaide- iaideme- f.
From the conjugation tables it should be clear how to derive the remaining forms from the third person present and past. And look carefully at the entries in the lists, seeing the three forms as one and noting relationships between them. The roman numerals overall look at some significant vowel in the stem, and have the following references: i some arguably basic, simple, vowel; ii some other vowel; iii a diphthong; iv and v the mixed verbs with infinitive suffix e, o.
Since most of them occur very frequently, we might begin by mentioning those verbs which are considered irregular. Fortunately, in all but one case once we know the three magic forms we have access to the rest, just as with the 'regular' verbs. With this one exception of buti, we note that they are all Conjugation I verbs, some of them having 'hard endings' in the present and 'soft endings' in the past. This makes their allocation to groups within Conjugation I absolutely straightforward.
So: Infinitive aiiti bftti deti duoti eiti gauti imti fikti mini pwti sluoti vlrti Third person present or all present, as necessary aiina esu, esl, yra, esame, esate, yra deda duoda eina gauna lma lieka mlrsta puola sluoja verda Third person past ave buvo de. On the basis of the summary table we note that verbs in Conjugations II and III are very restricted though they are also both plentiful and include many very common verbs.
Conjugation II is composed entirely of verbs with an infinitive in -hL We denote such verbs in Conjugation II as belonging to sub-group 'IId e ', 'd' standing for so-called 'mixed' verbs, i. However, not all such verbs belong to Conjugation II though most of them do , so we need to isolate all or a representative number of those which belong to Conjugation I or Conjugation III. The rest will be Conjugation II. Conjugation III too contains verbs where endings may be added directly on to the root, with either a suffixal -y- appearing in the infinitive, e.
These two are classed here as 'IIId o '. Conjugation I is indeed extremely complex. Essentially it is composed of verbs in -a or -ia in the present and respectively -o or -e in the past, with a certain amount of crossover. We divide these into four groups, '1' representing hard endings, '3' representing soft endings, '2' representing hard endings in the present and soft in the past, and '4' representing soft endings in the present and hard in the past.
Note that the terms 'hard' and 'soft' endings refer mainly to the palatalized character of the consonant preceding the ending and not to the ending itself; note too that the palatal consonant j is followed by 'hard' endings. For Group 1, with hard endings, we may start with those with a basic i, u in the root exceptions have soft endings in the past, e.
We may have lengthening of the root vowel in the present in the case of the vowel a, it is long in the past too; the lengthening in the present reflects a former nasal consonant, now lost. Infinitive svlsti Present sviiita Past svlto Notes on Lithuanian grammar XXX and d underlying sin bilsti, gesti, rilsti and sklisti, e.
Also note that where the root ends in s, i, z, i, the suffix is t. The original root-final consonant surfaces in the past tense. For mixed verbs we may begin with those with an -e- suffix in the infinitive, realized as -ej- in the past. In addition to the above verbs with suffixes in -eti and -oti, where the e or o appears in the present and the past, as well as the infinitive, there are five other such suffixes, the first three of them as listed below very productive in the language.
Note that the latter, exemplified by ufauti, have a different stress pattern. Ziuoti Zliliuoti Present dainuoja eiliuoja milruoja registruoja vliZiuoja Zliliuoja Past dainavo eiliavo miltiivo registravo vliZiavo Zaliavo Many such verbs come from other languages. They are also often formed from adjectives.
Very often these verbs have a or e in the root in our three basic forms. Or one may have a different vowel in the root historically speaking, a short vowel, namely a, e, u, i, in the present and a long vowel, respectively o, e, u, y, in the past; in the case of i:y, this applies only before I and r.
Note how the infinitive may have o, eor ii, i. Cia siufite skqsti skundZi. There is no problem in simply noting the verb isolate liisti. They retain their verbal functions in the sense of governing objects, but decline in ways reminiscent of adjectives rather than conjugating like verbs.
First, a concise table giving basic information, then some example paradigms. Verb dirbti Tense, 3p. Add -iqs, etc. Replace -owith -rs, etc. Replace final -o with -us. Replace -ti with -tas, etc. Notes on Lithuanian grammar xl The reflexive forms are restricted, and basically add -is after masculine nominative singular, -s after feminine nominative singular, and otherwise -si after a vowel and -is after a consonant.
Only those tables are given where the declension is different from that of normal adjectives. The special active participle occurs only in the nominative, viz. The passive participles are used with the verb butito render the passive voice the present passive participle may render 'action' while the past passive participle renders 'state'. A rare future passive may be formed by adding -imas, etc. By adding -nas, etc.
Thus: Sitas dtirbas yrli baigtinas 'This work is to be finished'. Adverbs kaip? The same applies to the superlative; as for the comparative, it is formed by suffixing -iau to the simple form. Thus: giras-gerai, platiis-placiai, graiiis-graiiai, geresnis-geriaii, geridusias-geridusiai. Associated with these are a whole host of Uthuanian adverbs with, or without, specialized meanings.
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We can have an extremely long sequence, such as one which starts like this:. A much more efficient notation is to use balanced parentheses:. By extending the sequence shown above, it can be proved that TREE 3 has the following weak lower bound:. Proof added in response to surprisingly hostile claims that I never had a proof of this bound : After the sequence described above, one can create a new tree, T24, which is of the form:.
This can be followed by the sequence:. At the end of this process, we have:. We proceed in the same way as before with a sequence of tree tree 7 terms, culminating in:. Repeating this process, we eventually reach the tree:. We can then make the next tree in our process have the form:. The same argument as before allows us to reach the tree:. Repeating this outer iteration another three times gets us to the claimed bound. We begin with a rectangular chocolate bar of size m by n , the bottom-left corner of which has been laced with cyanide.
Players alternate turns, eating a square of chocolate together with everything above and to the right of it. For instance, after the first move the resulting configuration might resemble this:. This continues until some unlucky person is left with the cyanide-laced square of chocolate and endures a slow, painful death.
Who has the winning strategy? Assume that the second player has a winning strategy, with the intention of deriving a contradiction. Now, Vishal has a winning strategy at this point. Reductio ad absurdum. As the game cannot terminate in a draw, we conclude that Gabriel has the winning strategy. This proof is heavily non-constructive, and no-one knows what this winning strategy is for arbitrary positive integers m,n. Chomp is called an impartial game , since the same moves are theoretically available to each player, and it just depends on whose turn it is.
Nim is another example. Both of these can be expressed as poset games , where players take turns to remove any element of a partially-ordered set together with all greater elements. We can define a two-player impartial game which is, incidentally, a poset game with the following rules:.
By definition, such a game lasts at most TREE 3 turns and can never result in a draw. An analogous game on subcubic graphs would be more interesting. Believe it or not, all reasonably-sized games of Chomp can occur as positions in natural games of TREE 3.
Firstly, we return to the previous scheme for getting really long sequences:. Now, we can continue this for a very long time x moves, where x has this unimaginably large lower bound :. If a player plays a single vertex blue or green, since red was exhausted on the first move , the opponent can win by playing the single vertex of the other colour. Also note that no blue node can have a child, and no tree can have a depth more than three.
In other words, subsequent moves resemble this:. This particular move is abbreviated to 4,3. Interpreting these as coordinates, you may notice that this is precisely emulating the game of Chomp on a m by n grid! Consequently, Gabriel can force Vishal to ultimately play 0,0 , which is a single green vertex. Gabriel immediately wins by playing a single blue vertex, leaving Vishal with no legal moves.
If so, we can use it to prove that TREE function is total, without need to use ordinal as enormous as Veblen ordinal. Ah, sorry, you are right. Pingback: Busy beavers Complex Projective 4-Space. I may be wrong, but I believe that is larger than the Bachman-Howard ordinal.
Pingback: Graph minors Complex Projective 4-Space. The article states compactness and references the Bolzano-Weierstrass article but how do we invoke compactness here? Consider the game-tree of all possible positions. The restriction that on the nth turn a player must pick a tree with at most n vertices is neither necessary nor natural. The Kruskal tree theorem shows that the game must end even if the players play arbitrarily large trees.
All the more fun! Does the game of tree 3 have no fate but to end up with each tree only being two generations for trillions of moves? Note that this no need to limit the number of vertices if your making it a game. Combinatorial game theory simply demands that every line of play is finite, not that it is bounded see for example Sylver coinage. The sequence showing how TREE 3 might start looks wrong to me. The 4th tree is a subset of the 5th and 6th trees. The 11th tree is a subset of the 12th tree.
So for one tree to contain another, the parent-child ordering must also be maintained. Is that right? And presumably each node can only have at most one parent? Actually the rule is the new tree should not contain an older tree but, an older tree can contain a new tree. Here contain means the nearest common ancestor should not be same. Pingback: Fast-growing functions revisited Complex Projective 4-Space. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
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